This paper studies the practice of industrial policy and the corresponding effort of institution building in Brazil from the 1930s to the 1970s. The argument is that, although that practice and the respective institutional organization succeeded in the structuring of Brazilian industry into a process of convergence towards the international industrial structure and technological development patterns up to the 1970s, they showed themselves not functional in catching up with the structural changes and thc new technologies of the 1 980s. The paper concludes by pointing that both the established practice of industrial policy and the related institutional organization led to a normative and institutional lock in which, together with the political inertia, hindered the necessary changes at the beginning of the 1980s.
This article analyses the impact of sub-contracting on the labor market and the inefficiency that may result from it. Sub-contracting is partially associated with the increase in services employment and the decrease in manufacturing employment in the early 1990s. Thus, sub-contracting may decrease job quality and incentives to human capital accumulation, since services tend to value human capital less than manufacturing, and have more informal and unstable labor relations. This scenario may deteriorate if the sub-contracted firms face credit constraints. Due to the existence of externalities, investment in human capital would be sub-optimal even if contracting firms were willing to invest in the sub-contracted ones.
Given a significant element of truth in “Public Choice”, a modest element must be found when a similar approach is made to the behavior of economic scientists. Harry Johnson found this in “The Keynesian revolution and the monetarist counter-revolution”. Following him, 1 find more in the Public Choice “Revolution” itself. The basic visions, assumptions and methods of the latter are appraised within its time-space stream. This approach is a complement to the Sociology of Knowledge (Thomas Kuhn), and may be taken as an embryonic Economics of Knowledge (Neoclassical). Requirements for the success of scientific revolutions is the theme.
This article suggests a revitalization of the History of Economic Thought by the adoption of new methods from the modern study of sciences. It shows the new horizons open by this approach, which has it origins in the Kuhn’s classical work. It ends giving as an example a case study based on the actor-network theory.
This article aims to investigate the determinants of the limited diffusion and theoretical acceptance of Kalecki’s work. In my opinion, the roots of the resistance to this author comes from the unusual way he combines the theoretical, methodological and analytical elements in his work. More specifically, it’s necessary to notice that, despite the theoretical substratum of his work is keynesian, the pattern of investigation and exposition used by Kalecki is structuralist, and comes up against Keynes’ methodological individualism. This contradiction — the center of Keynes and Kalecki’s usually hard dialogue — also limits the dialogue with those two other schools our author considered scientific in Economies, the Marxism and the (neoclassical) Econometrics.
The aim of this paper is to understand specific entry conditions into technology in the agro-food system and how these conditions have facilitated market leadership in that system by newly industrializing countries with natural resource endowments. The analysis is focused on the Brazilian case.
This paper examines differences in per capita revenues across Brazil’s states and capital municipalities. It provides a theoretical overview of Brazil’s fiscal equalization programs (the State and Municipal “Participation” Funds). The paper then provides evidence that these programs are not only failing to meet their equalization objectives, but in addition they are creating distorted patterns of revenues per capita across states and municipalities: some economically poor states and municipalities have revenues per capita far above the national average. This pattern of revenues per capita should be brought to the public’s and policy makers’ attention so that they may: (1) better evaluate the performance of state and local governments, and (ii) better evaluate proposals for revising Brazil’s system of fiscal federalism.
A superioridade do desempenho industrial dos países do Leste Asiático, particularmente em face de seus congêneres na América Latina, teve um forte impacto sobre o debate acerca das relações entre intervenção estatal e desempenho industrial. O paradigma estruturalista foi rapidamente substituído por uma nova ortodoxia cuja receita para o sucesso é um Estado minimalista e uma economia aberta. Este artigo procura mostrar que, muito embora a abertura da economia seja um ingrediente fundamental, seu complemento não é um Estado minimalista, mas sim intervencio-nista. Não do tipo latino-americano, mas um que restrinja suas ações a importantes falhas de mercado.
This paper analyses the process of regional integration in Asian Pacific region, that has had high economic growth and where there are economies with export led development policies. Traditional concepts of regional integration are described and a new concept, the open regionalism, is introduced. The history and institutions of Asian Pacific integration are presented. The economic interdependency between Asian Pacific countries is analyzed by geese pattern model of economic development.
This paper examines the relative price’s behavior of the Brazilian industry in the phases of expansion and retraction of the economic activity level between 1974-1994. The results suggest that relative prices of the oligopolistic sector accelerate more (less) in periods of recession (expansion) then the competitive sector. The main conclusion is that given the differentiated behavior in the price and low competition of the majority of the Brazilian industry, it is likely that the recession result of a restrict economic policy will be absorved by the competitive sector “in favour” of the oligopolistic sector.