In February 28 of 1986 the Brazilian government decided to freeze all prices. This “heterodox shock” and the development by Brazilian economists of the theory of inertial inflation, which served as a theoretical basis for the shock, are here discussed.
In this paper we argue for the introduction of a more stable agricultural policy, particularly in terms of governmental interventions in the functioning of the several markets for agricultural products as compared to the pattern of such interventions in the recent past. Such greater stability is characterized in two levels. First, a price policy for domestic crops, including buffer stocks, minimum prices and ceiling prices, which would indicate the moments for acquisitions to and selling from stocks. Second, for exported crops, a new approach to the practice of commercial policy, especially involving exports less subject to governmental restrictions.
This article discusses Hilferding’s theory of competition and argues that it resembles the neo-classical theory of perfect competition. The existence of differential profit rates is interpreted by Hilferding as representing an expression of the process of general monopolization in the economy, the law of value being therefore gradually weakened. Yet, in the light of Marx’s conception, the phenomenon of differential rates of profit among capitals in one and the same industry, as well as the differential rates of profit in different industries are necessary phenomena of competition. The conclusion may thus be reached that monopoly Is part of the concept of capitalist competition and that the law of value should be maintained as an indispensable theoretical foundation for the study of the workings of capitalism.
The purpose of this essay is the presentation of a general view of the theory of the functioning and dynamics of advanced capitalism of Kalecki. After analyzing the general relationship between effective demand and the levels of economic activity and employment, the author studies the logic’s of Kalecki’s cyclical model of growth. Along with the presentation of Kalecki’s ideas, the author takes issue with some criticisms of the theory of effective demand.
This paper deals with the socio economic implications of the technical basis in Brazilian auto-mobile industry, due to the diffusion of microelectronics automated equipment. It is shown that this industry has entered a new phase of greater integration with the industry at the world level, both in technical and economic terms. Automation based on microelectronics is being used to support patterns of production of increased efficiency. Outdated capital-labour relations in the industry may begin to evolve accordingly with the new political development towards democratiza-tion of the country.
The employment became one of central economic question in Brazil since 1981. In this article we analyse the transformations occurred in the labour market between 1980 and 1983, including, therefore, the years of more intense recession of this decade. Using dates from household budget survey and other official informations, the crisis in the formal labour market and the growth of informal sector are analyzed.