Maria da Conceição Tavares is an eminent figure in Brazilian economic thought, especially in heterodox circles. She has tackled various issues, such as underdevelopment, from the perspective of a “critique of political economy”. The purpose of this article is to identify the main theoretical references, as well as the methodological stance, in Tavares’s works, by revisiting the author’s critical dialogue with some strands of Political Economy. Although Tavares’s work sets up a dialogue with various economists, the paper will focus on her interpretation of Marx, Keynes and Kalecki, whose ideas are of utmost importance for the construction of her analytical framework.
JEL Classification: B24; B25; B31; B50.
This paper aims to be a very preliminary effort to contribute to a better understanding of the interaction among innovation, competition and intellectual property policies from an evolutionary- developmental perspective. As such, it seeks to build a more coherent framework within which the discussions of both institution building and policy design for development can proceed. In order to accomplish that, the paper introduces the concept of “Knowledge Governance” as an alternative analytical and policy- oriented approach, and suggests that from a public policy/public interest perspective, and within an evolutionary framework, it is a better way to address the problems concerning the production, appropriability and diffusion of knowledge. In doing so, it also intends contribute to broaden the ongoing discussions on the “New Developmentalism”.
JEL Classification: G18; H44; O4; K21.
This article aims to present the demand-led growth theory and some empirical evidences for a demand-led growth regime in Brazil. First of all, we will do a brief review of the theory of demand led-growth, based in the seminal work of Kaldor (1988), for whom long-run growth is determined by the growth rate of consumption expenditures and the growth rate of exports. Based in the empirical methodology developed by Atesoglu (2002), we run some econometric tests for the hypothesis of demand-led growth for Brazilian economy. The results of such tests shown that near of 85% of GDP growth in Brazil in the period 1991-2005 is explained by variables at the demand side of the economy. Besides that, based in the methodology developed by Ledesma and Thirwall (2002), we shown that natural rate of growth for Brazilian economy is endogenous, increasing during boom times. This means that appears to be no restrictions in the supply side of the economy for a faster growth of Brazilian economy. Finally, we argue that a necessary condition for a sustained growth of Brazilian economy is the adoption of a export-led growth model. For such it is necessary to put an end on the actual over-valuation of real exchange rate.
JEL Classification: O11; O47; O54.
This paper identifies and evaluates determinative common factors of currency and financial crisis in relation to 86 crises episodes between 1970-2004, based on factor analysis, cluster and discriminant analysis. One evidenced that the rise of the ratios of domestic credit, fiscal deficit and residents bank deposits to the GDP is inherent to the different types of crises classified for economic literature. It was also identified as common factors to these episodes some indicators that capture the excessive monetary expansion of the economies and that reflect the fall in international reserves, represented by M2/Reserves and Imports/Reserves ratios and also the total volume of international reserves.
JEL Classification: F31; F41.
The development of the dynamic method is considered the biggest contribution of the Stockholm School. The objective of this review-article is to show as this method contributed for the Alternative Theory of Money. The influence received from Wicksell is argued. The Stockholm School anticipated the thought of Keynes, but advancing dynamic macroeconomic analysis. The restatement of Keynes´ ideas, under the dynamic method, is important post keynesian contribution.
JEL Classification: B20; B41; B59.
This article analyses the relationship between infrastructure and total factor productivity (TFP) in Brazil during the second half of the twenty century. Public capital is used as a proxy for infrastructure capital. The hypothesis to be tested is that an increase in infrastructure — more than than a rise in the private capital stock— has a positive effect on productivity on the long run. In that sense, it was used the Johansen methodology for testing the cointegration between TFP and the public/private capital ratio. In fact, it was found that this complementary relation (public-private) helps in explanning TFP’s path from 1950 to 2000. The results were robust to different measures of productivity and the public/private ratio. In addition, the short (medium) run analysis has indicated that shocks in this ratio have a significant effect over the TFP, but the opposite is not true. Therefore, the cuts in infrastructure investment could be a possible explanation for the TFP’s fall during the 70’s and 80’s.
JEL Classification: O11; O47; O54.
This paper presents some basic ideas and models of a structuralist development macroeconomics (the tendencies to the overvaluation of the exchange rate and the tendency of wages to grow below productivity, the critique of growth with foreign savings, and a new model of the Dutch disease) that complement and actualize the thought of the Latin-American structuralist school that developed around ECLAC from the late 1940s to the 1960s. On the other hand, it suggests that a new national development strategy based on the experience of fast growing Asian countries is emerging; and argues that only the countries that adopt such strategy based on growth with domestic savings, fiscal and foreign trade responsibility and a competitive exchange rate will be able to catch up.
JEL Classification: E10; E11; E12.
The knowledge economy arises by the promotion of abstract and cooperative labor. This social labor is a product of intellectual and linguistic energy, which leads to mutations about capital accumulation and capital labor relations.
JEL Classification: J24.
The paper presents the main arguments of Bresser Pereira's Globalization and Competition. Development strategies based on the 'conventional orthodoxy' are shown to carry serious drawbacks (“Dutch disease”, pernicious effects of external saving, currency overvaluation), while a 'new developmentalism' is promoted, in spite of the widespread belief that the nation-states have been dispossessed of their room for manoeuvre because of the globalization process. The “new developmentalism” is based on domestic finance, balanced public budgets, moderate interest rates and competitiveness policies aimed at neutralizing the tendency to exchange rate overappreciation. The paper also points out a few theoretical questions the book raises.
JEL Classification: F43; O11; O16; O19; O23; O24; O25.